Below find links to the PDFs of the background reading for the GMO debate assignment
This assignment was modified from Deborah Lycan at Lewis and Clark College (

Assignment document

Background reading
Wolfenberger, LL Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: Current status and recommendations

Warwick, S. Transgene introgression from genetically modified crops to their wild relatives
......background for this article When Transgene Wander, Should We Worry?

Snow, AA. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004)
......background for this article
Nature (2006) Four years on, no transgenes found in Mexican maize.
Nature (2001)Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico.

Sears, MK. Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterflies: a risk assessment. Proc. Natl Acad Sci 98:11937

......background for this article
Bt corn not a threat to Monarchs
Losey et al (1999) Transgenic pollen hurts monarch larvae. Nature 399: 214

Pleasant, J. Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population

...... background for this article
Doll. Are milkweeds and butterflies in trouble?

Huang, J. Huang et al. (2005). Insect-resistant GM rice in farmer's fields: Assessing productivity and health effects in China. Science 308:688.
........background for this article
Pesticide results help China edge transgenic rice towards market. Nature 435:3.
Debate over a GM rice trial in China. Science 310:231-2.

Qaim, M. Qiam et al. (2003). Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science 299:900

Dawe, D. Crop Case Study: GMO Golden Rice in Asia with enhanced vitamin A benefits for consumers.
......background for this article
Tough lessons from Golden Rice
Regulation must be revolutionized
Charges fly, confusion reigns over Golden Rice Study in Chinese Children